Original Research Article
Year: 2017 | Month: Jan.-March | Volume: 1 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 17-20
An Investigation on Factors affecting Breakthrough Curve for Low Cost Adsorbent
Sunil Jayant Kulkarni
Datta Meghe College of Engineering, Airoli, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Adsorption using low cost adsorbent is effective method for organic matter removal from wastewater. For treatment of organic matter, generally packed beds are used. Other contacting patterns like fluidized beds are also investigated. Removal of various pollutants from effluent using packed beds is widely used treatment method. Bed height and flow rate are two key factors affecting column operation. Though the column is often designed based on batch experimental data, it is important to know the behavior of the adsorption phenomenon with respect to flow rate and bed height variations. In present investigation effect of flow rates and bed height on the nature of break through curve is studied for three adsorbents namely activated carbon, leaf litter adsorbent and wood charcoal adsorbent.
Key words:Adsorbate, adsorbent, height, flow rate, breakthrough curve..
Adsorption for removal of various pollutants is very efficient and adoptable method for liquid effluent. Investigations are reported from removal of organic matter (COD) in packed bed by various investigators. [1-5]Most of the investigations are aimed at studying effects of parameters like flow rate and bed height on the removal efficiency and breakthrough curves. The studies are reported on packed bed removal of phenolic compounds from wastewater. [6-10] Also heavy metal removal in packed bed has also been reported. [11,12]The modeling for breakthrough curves is important aspect in packed bed studies. Various investigators have reported studies on model fitting for Thomas and Yoon Nelson models. [13,14] Use of low cost adsorbent is being explored to minimize cost. In current research, effect of flow rate and bed height for three low cost adsorbents is reported.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The waste water from nearby common effluent treatment plant was used for the investigation. The initial COD was determined by using potassium dichromate as oxidizing agent and COD digestion apparatus (spectralab-make). BOD5 was also determined by using DO difference. The COD was adjusted by proper dilution to normalized values. The adsorbents were prepared by washing the raw material with distilled water. Then the material was washed with acid and again washed with water. Then it was thermally activated at 500oC. Packed column with 60 cm height and 4.5 dia. was used. The flow rates were adjusted by using needle valve. The column was having a sprinkler at the top inlet and wire mesh at the bottom. Flow rate was measured by rotameter. The sample was collected after every half hour interval. The experiments were carried out at different bed heights and flow rates.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Initial studies were carried out with 35 cm bed height and 50 ml per minute flow rate to have rough estimates of the COD removal. It was observed that activated carbon reached the break through point in 25 minutes. The break through times for other two adsorbent were slightly more. Activated carbon was best adsorbent with almost 88 percent removal. Wood charcoal showed 84 percent removal. Leaf litter showed 85-87 percent removal. It can be said that the ability of the new adsorbent is comparable with the conventional adsorbent. Exhaustion time was maximum for wood charcoal adsorbent and minimum for activated carbon. The break through time was time required for the outlet concentration to reach 10 percent of initial concentration. The exhaustion time is considered as time required for exhaustion of bed capacity to adsorb the adsorbate.
Fig.1 shows the COD behavior at various time intervals for these three adsorbents. Fig. 2, 3 and 4 indicates effect of flow rate on break through curves. It was observed that as flow rate is increased, the break through time reduces. Also exhaustion time decreases. For all three adsorbents this behavior was observed. This may be due to rapid availability of adsorbate. Figure 5,6 and 7 indicates the effect of bed height on breakthrough curves. It was observed that the break through is delayed with increase in the adsoption column heights. Table 1 to 3 summarizes results for bed height and adsorption column height. Break through time (tb) and exhaustion time (te) are shown at various value of these parameters in the table.
Table1: Activated carbon column studies
|Flow rate ml/min||25||50||75|
|Break through time, minutes||25||20||17|
|Exhaustion time, minutes||240||240||210|
|Break through time, minutes||20||24||29|
|Exhaustion time, minutes||235||240||240|
Table2: Leaf litter column studies
|Break through time||27||22||20|
|Break through time, minutes||22||26||33|
|Exhaustion time, minutes||250||250||250|
Table3: Wood charcoal column studies
|Break through time||30||25||22|
|Bed height||35 cm||45 cm||55 cm|
|Break through time, minutes||24||30||39|
|Exhaustion time, minutes||250||240||240|
In present investigation effect of flow rates and bed a height on the nature of break through curve is studied for three adsorbents namely activated carbon, leaf litter adsorbent and wood charcoal adsorbent. It was observed that activated carbon reached the break through point in 25 minutes. The break through times for other two adsorbent were slightly more. Activated carbon was best adsorbent with almost 88 percent removal. Wood charcoal showed 84 percent removal. Leaf litter showed 85-87 percent removal. It was observed that as flow rate is increased, the break through time reduces. For all three adsorbents this behavior was observed.
- Pallavi Amale, Sunil Kulkarni, Kavita Kulkarni, “A review on research for industrial wastewater treatment with special Emphasis on distillery effluent”, International Journal of Ethics in Engineering & Management Education, 2014, 1(9), 1-4.
- Sunil J. Kulkarni,“Removal of Phenol From Effluent In Fixed Bed: A Review”, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 2014, 2(5), 35-38.
- Sunil J. Kulkarni, A.K. Goswami, “Removal of Organic matter from Wastewater by Using Bagasse Fly ash in Batch and Column Operations”, International Journal of Science and Research, 2013, 2(11), 180-183.
- Pallavi Amale, Sunil Kulkarni, Kavita Kulkarni, “Studies on Packed Bed Treatment for Organic Matter in Distillery Effluent”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology, 2014, 3(5), 268-272.
- Sunil Kulkarni, Dr. Jayant Kaware, “Regeneration and Recovery in Adsorption- a Review”, International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 2014, 1(8), 61-65.
- S.J. Kulkarni, Dr. J. P. Kaware, “Review on Research for Removal of Phenol from Wastewater”, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2013, 3(4),1-5.
- Sunil J. Kulkarni, “Modeling For Adsorption Columns for Wastewater Treatment: A Review”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Multidisciplinary Physical Sciences, 2014, 2(2), 7-11.
- S.J.Kulkarni, J.P.Kaware, “Adsorption for Phenol Removal-A Review”, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research, 2013, 1(2), 87-96.
- Shahlaa E. Ebrahim, “Modeling the Removal of Phenol by Natural Zeolitein Batch and Continuous Adsorption Systems”, Journal of Babylon University/ Engineering Sciences, 2013, 21 (1), 249-263.
- S. J. Kulkarni and J. P. Kaware, “Kinetics of Phenol Uptake from Wastewater by Adsorption in a Fixed Bed”, Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 2014, 4(4), 3116-3123
- Sunil J. Kulkarni, Jayant P. Kaware, “Analysis of Packed Bed Adsorption Column with Low Cost Adsorbent for Cadmium Removal”, Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering, 2015, 9(1), 17-24.
- Sunil J Kulkarni, Dr Jayant P Kaware. “Removal of Cadmium from Wastewater by Groundnut Shell Adsorbent-Batch and Column Studies”, International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research, 2014, 6(1), 27-37.
- Sunil J. Kulkarni, Dr. Jayant p. Kaware, “Fixed Bed Removal of Heavy Metal- a Review”, International Journal of Research (IJR), 2014, 1(6), 861-870.
- Sunil J. Kulkarni, Dr. Jayant P. Kaware, “Groundnut Shell Adsorbent in Packed Bed for Cadmium Removal- Modeling for Breakthrough Curve”, SSRG International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research (SSRG-IJCER), 2014, 2(1), 1-6.
How to cite this article: Kulkarni SJ. Column studies for low cost adsorbents: effect of flow rate and bed height on breakthrough curves. Galore International Journal of Applied Sciences & Humanities. 2017; 1(1): 17-20.
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